November 5 - 1688 - William III Lands at Torbay
Although he had only taken the throne in 1685, by 1688 James II was already highly unpopular with his subjects. A practicing Catholic, James was adversarial in matters of religion. He also was antagonistic to Parliament. Yet James was older, having inherited the throne from his elder brother Charles, and he had two Protestant heirs, including Mary, Princess Royal, who was married to her first cousin William III, Prince of Orange, ruler of the Netherlands. Then James had a son with his second, and notably Catholic, wife Mary of Modena in June of 1688. Now the assumption of a Protestant ruler arriving shortly was gone. So seven nobles, known as the Immortal Seven, invited William III to invade England. William was still hesitant and took time to gather his force for an invasion, largely concerned about his enemy Louis XIV of France helping James. Then Louis became involved in battles in Germany and William invaded. He met little resistance, and once he landed at Torbay, in southwest England, he had effectively seized control. Within two months, William and Mary would be crowned co-monarchs in what became known as "The Glorious Revolution," a largely bloodless invasion.