April 16 - 1746 - The Battle of Culloden
Jacobitism was, at its most basic, the cause to return the Stuart line to the thrones of England and Scotland. In 1688, James II and VII of England and Scotland was deposed after having a son whom he planned to raise Catholic, which resulted in his son-in-law and daughter taking the throne as William and Mary. By 1745, Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, was the Jacobite claimant against the second Hanoverian King of Great Britain, George II, and he launched an invasion through Scotland. Charles Stuart was initially successful, marching to Derby in the Midlands, but then turned back to Scotland. By 1746, Prince William, Duke of Cumberland led an army to chase down the Jacobite army. They met in battle at a marsh near Inverness known as Culloden. Charles' army, poorly equipped and more poorly led, the combined force of Highland Clans, Irishmen serving in the French Army, and ineffective commanders was routed by the Government army. This defeat at the Battle of Culloden not only ended the Jacobite Rising of '45, but also serious Jacobitism and Scottish Highland culture.