September 10 - 1547 - The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh
"The Rough Wooing" was a conflict between England and Scotland that revolved around England forcing the Scottish regents to agree to have Mary, Queen of Scots, become betrothed to Edward, Prince of Wales, England's heir to the throne. Begun by King Henry VIII, the Rough Wooing also would have accomplished Henry's goal of forcing a Protestant Reformation in Scotland. After Henry's death, England too was ruled by a regent, as the new King Edward VI was just 10 years old. So in 1547, the two regents, England's Duke of Somerset and Scotland's Earl of Arran, faced each other in battle in southern Scotland. The battle was a decisive English rout, one that was said to see Renaissance English army destroy a more Medieval Scottish one. More significantly, it would be the last pitched battle between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland. Although England won the battle, their objectives from the Rough Wooing were not immediately met, as Mary, Queen of Scots, married the French prince, Scotland remained Catholic, and the two Kingdoms were not united. Yet in the long run, Scotland would have a Reformation itself that placed the young James VI, Mary's son, on the throne, and eventually he would succeed his cousin Elizabeth I of England, uniting the two Kingdoms in one crown.